objects: 18
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Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 27 x 26.5 cm.
  • 241 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 50, No. 5 (January 2012)

Michelle Kuo, Claes Oldenburg, Paul Kaiser, Robert Whitman, Malcolm Bull, James Quandt, Amy Taubin, Tony Pipolo, Martin Kemp, Nasser Rabbat, Saskia Sassen, Annie Ochmanek, Uri Aran, Julia Robinson, Pauline J. Yao, Hal Foster, Sylvia Lavin, Michael Ned Holte, Sharon Lockhart, Carol Armstrong, Aram Moshayedi, Francesco Bonami, Elizabeth Schambelan, Daniel Marcus, Robert Pincus-Witten, Johanna Burton, David Frankel, Donald Kuspit, Suzanne Hudson, Frances Richard, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, Richard Deming, Eva Díaz, Ara H. Merjian, Emily Hall, Barry Schwabsky, Brian Sholis, Colin Lang, Michelle Grabner, John McKinnon, Gwen Allen, Sarah Lehrer-Graiwer, Catherine Taft, Travis Diehl, Anna Lovatt, T.J. Demos, Michael Archer, Steven Cairns, Paul Galvez, Claire Moulène, Jens Asthoff, John Beeson, Jurriaan Benschop, Noemi Smolik, Quinn Latimer, Marco Tagliafierro, Brigitte Huck, Kaelen Wilson-Goldie, Javier Hontoria, Pablo Llorca, Cathryn Drake, Midori Matsui, Angie Baecker, Lee Ambrozy, María Gainza

Issue edited by Michelle Kuo. Essays "Passages: Claes Oldenburg, Paul Kaiser, and Robert Whitman on Robert Breer," by Claes Oldenburg, Paul Kaiser, and Robert Whitman; "Books: Malcolm Bull on Jacques Derrida's 'The Beast & The Sovereign,'" by Malcolm Bull; "Film: James Quandt on Steve McQueen's 'Shame,'" by James Quandt; "Film: Amy Taubin on Nuri Bilge Ceylan's 'Once Upon a Time in Anatolia,'" by Amy Taubin; "Film: Tony Pipolo on Jean-Marie Straub," by Tony Pipolo; "Vault: Martin Kemp on Leonardo da Vinci's 'The Virgin of the Rocks,'" by Martin Kemp; "Slant: Nasser Rabbat on the New Islamic Art Galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art," by Nasser Rabbat; "Slant: Saskia Sassen and Hans Haacke on the Spaces of Occupation," by Saskia Sassen and Hans Haacke; "Slant: Annie Ochmanek on Christopher D'Arcangelo," by Annie Ochmanek; "Top Ten," by Uri Aran; "Winter 2012 Exhibitions: 45 Shows Worldwide"; "Julia Robinson on 'Claes Oldenburg: The Sixties,'" by Julia Robinson; "Dark Matter: The Art of Liu Wei," by Pauline J. ... [details]

Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 238 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 49, No. 8 (April 2011)

Michelle Kuo, Greil Marcus, Terry Eagleton, Joachim Pissarro, James Quandt, Melissa Anderson, Tim Griffin, Alan Licht, Nathan Dunne, Christian von Borries, Hal Foster, John Armleder, Fabrice Stroun, Nasser Rabbat, Liz Kotz, John Mackay, André Rottmann, William Kaizen, David Rimanelli, Frances Richard, Lisa Turvey, Johanna Burton, David Frankel, Jeffrey Kastner, Robert Pincus-Witten, Suzanne Hudson, Yates McKee, Michael Wilson, Joshua Decter, Donald Kuspit, Brian Sholis, Emily Hall, Lloyd Wise, Jaleh Mansoor, Michelle Grabner, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, Kyle MacMillan, Franklin Melendez, Catherine Taft, Jan Tumlir, Sarah Lehrer-Graiwer, Rachel Withers, Anthony Byrt, Maeve Connolly, Michael Fried, Natilee Harren, Noemi Smolik, Giorgio Verzotti, Marco Tagliafierro, Cathryn Drake, Brigitte Huck, Marek Bartelik, Matthew S. Witkovsky, Ronald Jones, Tom Hermansen, Martí Peran, Juan Vicente Aliaga, Barry Schwabsky, Midori Matsui, Shinyoung Chung

Issue edited by Michelle Kuo. Essays "Passages: Greil Marcus on Captain Beefheart," by Greil Marcus; "Books: Terry Eagleton on François Dosse's 'Deleuze & Guattari,'" by Terry Eagleton; "Books: Joachim Pissarro and David Carrier on Thomas Kinkade," by Joachim Pissarro; "Film: James Quandt on Michelangelo Frammartino's 'Le Quattro Volte," by James Quandt; "Film: Melissa Anderson on Clio Barnard's 'The Arbor,'" by Melissa Anderson; "Film: Tim Griffin on Werner Herzog's 'Cave of Forgotten Dreams,'" by Tim Griffin; "On Site: Alan Licht on Sue de Beer's 'The Ghosts,'" by Alan Licht; "On Site: Nathan Dunne on the Sergei Paradjanov Museum," by Nathan Dunne; "Top Ten," by Christian von Borries; "Close-Up: A RRose in Berlin," Hal Foster on Marcel Duichamp's "Belle Haleine"; "To Be Determined: An Interview with John Armleder," by Fabrice Stroun; "Circling the Square: Archictecture and Revolution in Cairo," by Nasser Rabbat; "1000 Words: Robert Whitman," by Liz Kotz; "A Revolution in Film: The Cinema of Dziga Vertov," by John Mackay; "Openings: Jan Timme," by André Rottmann. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2011
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 362 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 47, No. 10 (Summer 2009)

Tom Griffin, Lynne Cooke, Christopher Williams, Hal Foster, Brigitte Weingart, James Quandt, Richard Deming, Bruce Jenkins, Claire Bishop, Taraneh Fazeli, Maria Gough, Lindsay Seers, Wayne Koestenbaum, Rirkrit Tiravanija, Yoko Ono, Tim Griffin, Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, Hamza Walker, Sean Keller, Chus Martínez, Fionn Meade, Briony Fer, Gene McHugh, Pamela M. Lee, Daniel Quiles, Jan Tumlir, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Jeff Rian, Lisa Turvey, David Frankel, Johanna Burton, Robert Pincus-Witten, Joshua Decter, David Rimanelli, Michael Wilson, Frances Richard, Donald Kuspit, Nick Stillman, Emily Hall, Alexander Scrimgeour, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, Suzanne Hudson, Brian Sholis, David Velasco, Paul Galvez, Francine Koslow Miller, Nord Wennerstrom, Zehra Jumabhoy, James Yood, Christopher Miles, Michael Ned Holte, Catherine Taft, Miguel Amado, Rachel Withers, Gilda Williams, Maeve Connolly, Barry Schwabsky, Jian-Xing Too, Joachim Pissarro, Claire Moulène, Lillian Davies, Lars Bang Larsen, Dominikus Müller, Daniel Boese, Ida Panicelli, Alessandra Pioselli, Marco Tagliafierro, Cathryn Drake, Jens Asthoff, Noemi Smolik, Brian Droitcour, Ronald Jones, Nikki Columbus, Midori Matsui, David Carrier, Jessica Berlanga Taylor, María Gainza, Katia Canton, Seth Price

Issue edited by Tom Griffin. Essays "Editor's Letter: Value Systems," by Tim Griffin; "Passages: Lynne Cooke on Hanne Darboven," by Lynne Cooke; "Passages: Christopher Williams on Coosje van Bruggen," by Christopher Williams; "Books: Hal Foster on Peter Sloterdijk's 'Terror from the Air,'" by Hal Foster; "Books: Brigitte Weingart on Michael Taussig's 'What Color Is the Sacred,'" by Brigitte Weingart; "Film: James Quandt on Lucrecia Martel's 'The Headless Woman,'" by James Quandt; "Film: Richard Deming on Kenneth Macpherson's 'Monkeys' Moon,'" by Richard Deming; "Film: Bruce Jenkins on Paul Sharits," by Bruce Jenkins; "On Site: Claire Bishop on Tania Bruguera at the 10th Havana Biennial," by Claire Bishop; "On Site: Taraneh Fazeli on Night School," by Taraneh Fazeli; "On Site: Maria Gough on 'Tango with Cows,'" by Maria Gough; "Top Ten," by Lindsay Seers; "Situation Hacker: The Art of Ryan Trecartin," by Wayne Koestenbaum; "In Conversation: Rirkrit Tiravanija and Yoko Ono"; "The Personal Effects of Seth Price," by Tim Griffin; "How German Was It?" by Benjamin H. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2009
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 324 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 47, No. 4 (December 2008)

Tim Griffin, John Waters, Amy Taubin, James Quandt, Karen Cooper, Stuart Comer, Ryoji Ikeda, Robin Rimbaud (a.k.a Scanner), Damon Krukowski, Vashti Bunyan, Brigitte Fontaine, Michael Hardt, Briony Fer, Jonathan Crary, Arthur C. Danto, Rosalind Krauss, Wayne Koestenbaum, Pamela M. Lee, Tom McCarthy, Shannon Ebner, James Meyer, Maggie Nelson, Matt Weiland, Judith Williamson, Diedrich Diederichsen, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Duncan Campbell, Martin Boyce, Marlene Dumas, Morgan Fisher, Liz Larner, Joan Jonas, Javier Téllez, Carsten Nicolai, Evas Arche und der Feminist, Jef Geys, K8 Hardy, Gabriel Kuri, Joel Sternfeld, Jack Pierson, Mathias Poledna, Martin Beck, John Baldessari, Tino Sehgal, Keren Cytter, Haim Steinbach, Sharon Lockhart, Josef Strau, Hito Steyerl, Mario Ybarra Jr., Angela Bulloch, Lutz Bacher, Andrea Bowers, Annika Ström, Marc Camille Chaimowicz, Gerard Byrne, Artur Zmijewski, Adam Helms, Lisa Lapinski, Harry Dodge, Peter Coffin, Marjetica Potrc, Mai-Thu Perret, Harun Farocki, Katja Strunz, Matthew Buckingham, Tatiana Trouvé, Edgar Arceneaux, Charline von Heyl, Thomas Eggerer, Dexter Sinister, Paul Sietsema, Trevor Paglen, Christian Jankowski, Christina Kubisch, Stanya Kahn, Matias Faldbakken, Rita McBride, Pae White, Dara Birnbaum, William Leavitt, Michaela Meise, Vaginal Davis, Charles Esche, Caroline Busta, Linda Yablonsky, Walead Beshty, Emily Pethick, Dominikus Müller, Cathryn Drake, Keti Chukhrov, Bisi Silva, Colin Chinnery, Tom Vanderbilt, Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, Okwui Enwezor, Lynne Cooke, Daniel Birnbaum, Claire Bishop, Matthew Higgs, Christine Macel, John Kelsey, Jack Bankowsky, Suzanne Cotter, Jessica Morgan, Michael Ned Holte, Sabine Breitwieser, Isabelle Graw, Ann Goldstein, Philip Tinari, David Joselit, Chus Martínez, Bob Nickas, Bill T. Jones, Michael Wilson, Robert Pincus-Witten, Steven Henry Madoff, Joshua Decter, Lisa Turvey, Jeffrey Kastner, Fionn Meade, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, David Frankel, Johanna Burton, Emily Hall, Brian Sholis, Nick Stillman, Suzanne Hudson, David Velasco, Donald Kuspit, Monica Amor, David Carrier, James Yood, Ivy Cooper, Patricia Briggs, Michael Odom, Philip Auslander, Christopher Miles, Barry Schwabsky, Gilda Williams, Maeve Connolly, Jos Van den Bergh, André Rottmann, Daniel Boese, Noemi Smolik, Wolf Jahn, Valérie Knoll, Giorgio Verzotti, Brigitte Huck, Nuit Banai, Joanna Fiduccia, Miguel Amado, Juan Vicente Aliaga, Jessica Berlanga Taylor, Shinyoung Chung

Issue edited by Tim Griffin. Essays "Editor's Letter: Snapshot of 2008," by Tim Griffin; "Film: Best of 2008," by John Waters, Amy Taubin, James Quandt, Karen Cooper, and Stuart Comer; "Music: Best of 2008," by Ryoji Ikeda, Robin Rimbaud, Damon Krukowski, Vashti Bunyan, and Brigitte Fontaine; "Books: Best of 2008," by Michael Hardt, Briony Fer, Jonathan Crary, Arthur C. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2008
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 407 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 47, No. 2 (October 2008)

Tim Griffin, Bruce Jenkins, Jason Smith, Cory Arcangel, Amy Taubin, P. Adams Sitney, Huey Copeland, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Markus Miessen, Carol Armstrong, Tauba Auerbach, Christine Mehring, John Kelsey, Jonathan Rosenbaum, Douglas Crimp, Nick Mauss, Jessica Morgan, Franz West, Jeffrey Weiss, Martin Herbert, Jordan Kantor, David Anfam, Caroline A. Jones, Robert Pincus-Witten, David Frankel, Johanna Burton, Nick Stillman, Joshua Decter, Donald Kuspit, Suzanne Hudson, David Velasco, Frances Richard, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, Caroline Busta, Fionn Meade, Michael Wilson, Brian Sholis, Tom Breidenbach, Francine Koslow Miller, Nord Wennerstrom, Philip Auslander, James Yood, Michelle Grabner, Glen Helfand, Michael Ned Holte, Sarah Lehrer-Graiwer, Christopher Miles, Gilda Williams, Diana Baldon, Barry Schwabsky, Lillian Davies, Nuit Banai, Daniel Boese, Wouter Davidts, Noemi Smolik, Hans Rudolf Reust, Valérie Knoll, Alessandra Pioselli, Cathryn Drake, Martí Peran, Brigitte Huck, Marek Bartelik, Zehra Jumabhoy, Mathieu Borysevicz, David Carrier, Anthony Gardner

Issue edited by Tim Griffin. Essays "Editor's letter: Art and Agency," by Tim Griffin; "Passages: Bruce Jenkins on Bruce Conner," by Bruce Jenkins; "Books: Jason Smith on Branden W. Joseph's 'Beyond the Dream Syndicate,'" by Jason Smith; "Cory Arcangel on the San Francisco Tape Music Center," by Cory Arcangel; "Film: Amy taubin on 'Ballast' and 'Wendy and Lucy,'" by Amy Taubin; "Film: P. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2008
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 388 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 47, No. 1 (September 2008)

Tim Griffin, Michel Houellebecq, Ann Temkin, Richard Deming, Jeff Kelley, Helen Molesworth, Jeffrey Weiss, Martin Herbert, Daniel Birnbaum, Pontus Hultén, Steven Henry Madoff, Josef Strau, Rachel Churner, Prudence Peiffer, Bruce Boucher, Okwui Enwezor, Catherine Wood, Cerith Wyn Evans, Kate Coyne, Silke Otto-Knapp, Jonathan Horowitz, Jutta Koether, Thomas Eaton, Eric Rentschler, Thomas Crow, Merce Cunningham, Robert Whitman, Trisha Brown, Barbara Rose, Brice Marden, Branden W. Joseph, James Rosenquist, Tomasz Fudala, Barbara Clausen, Michael Clark, Graham Bader, Colin Lang, Sarah K. Rich, Jeffrey Kastner, Johanna Burton, Robert Pincus-Witten, Alexander Scrimgeour, David Frankel, Suzanne Hudson, Lisa Turvey, Nick Stillman, Donald Kuspit, Lauren O'Neill-Butler, David Velasco, Michael Wilson, Francine Koslow Miller, Monica Amor, Howard Risatti, Philip Auslander, James Yood, Michelle Grabner, Martha Schwendener, Brian Sholis, Ellen Berkovitch, Christopher Miles, Sarah Lehrer-Graiwer, Dan Adler, Jessica Berlanga Taylor, María Gainza, Barry Schwabsky, Gilda Williams, Sarah Lowndes, Jean-Max Colard, Jian-Xing Too, John-Paul Stonard, Yoann Van Parys, André Rottmann, Noemi Smolik, Valérie Knoll, Paola Noé, Giorgio Verzotti, Emily Newman, Cathryn Drake, Jon Bywater, Michael Hatch, Shinyoung Chung

Issue edited by Tim Griffin. Essays "Editor's Letter: Mirror Image," by Tim Griffin; "Letters: Michel Houellebecq on Alain Robbe-Grillet," by Michel Houellebecq; "Passages: Ann Temkin on Anne d'Harnoncourt," by Ann Temkin; "Books: Richard Deming on P. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2008
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 396 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 46, No. 2 (October 2007)

Tim Griffin, David Joselit, Lisa Turvey, David Anfam, Katy Siegel, Jan Avgikos, Nick Stillman, David Frankel, Suzanne Hudson, Kyle Bentley, Johanna Burton, David Velasco, Frances Richard, Michael Wilson, Brian Sholis, Donald Kuspit, David Carrier, Nord Wennerstrom, James Yood, Glen Helfand, Maria Porges, Michael Ned Holte, Christopher Miles, Dan Adler, Rachel Withers, Gilda Williams, Jian-Xing Too, Ronald Jones, Lillian Davies, Jos Van den Bergh, Isabelle Graw, Astrid Wege, Eva Scharrer, Noemi Smolik, Cathryn Drake, Francesco Stocchi, Catrin Lorch, Lars Bang Larsen, Miguel Amado, Juan Vicente Aliaga, Shinyoung Chung, Blake Stimson, Thomas Struth, Maria Morris Hambourg, Elizabeth Schambelan, Jason Simon, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Bennett Simpson, Aaron Betsky, Rosalind Krauss, Rosalind Nashashibi, Scott Rothkopf, Michelle Kuo, Andrea Zittel, Roni Horn, Caroline A. Jones, Katharina Fritsch, Ai Weiwei, Chris Burden, Josiah McElheny, Sherrie Levine, Sam Durant, Pamela M. Lee, Rachel Whiteread, Bridget Riley, Philip Tinari, Monica Bonvicini, Urs Fischer, Angela Bulloch, Peter Carlson, Lynne Cooke, Jeffrey Deitch, Charles Ray, Mike Smith, Ed Suman, Barnett Newman

Issue edited by Tim Griffin. Essays "Passages: Blake Stimson and Thomas Struth on Bernd Becher," by Blake Stimson and Thomas Struth; "Passages: Maria Morris Hambourg on John Szarkowski," by Maria Morris Hambourg; "Books: Elizabeth Schambelam on 'The So-Called Utopia of the Centre Beaubourg," by Elizabeth Schambelan; "Film: Jason Simon on Chris Marker," by Jason Simon; "Media: Julia Bryan-Wilson on '9 Scripts from a Nation at War,'" by Julia Bryan-Wilson; "Sound: Bennett Simpson on David Grubbs and Susan Howe," by Bennett Simpson; "Architecture: Aaron Betsky on Steven Holl's Bloch Building," by Aaron Betsky; "Slant: Rosalind Krauss on 'Invisible Colors,'" by Rosalind Krauss; "Top Ten," by Rosalind Nashashibi; "The Art of Production: Introduction," by Scott Rothkopf; "Industrial Revolution: The History of Fabrication," by Michelle Kuo with production notes by Andrea Zittel and Roni Horn; "The Server/User Mode: The Art of Olafur Eliasson," by Caroline A. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2007
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 376 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered

Artforum

Vol. 44, No. 10 (Summer 2006)

Tim Griffin, Terry Eagleton, Gary Indiana, David Rimanelli, Aaron Betsky, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Jonathan Gilmore, Carol Armstrong, Bruce Sterling, Monsieur Chat, Scott Rothkopf, Bill Horrigan, Judith Rodenbeck, Lucas Samaras, Suzanne Lacy, Jeff Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Lisa Pasquariello, Jordan Kantor, Hannah Feldman, Domenick Ammirati, Jessica Morgan, Michael Fried, Richard Shiff, Christian Rattemeyer, Pamela Kort, Michael Wilson, Elizabeth Schambelan, Johanna Burton, Jan Avgikos, Claire Barliant, Brian Sholis, Emily Hall, Donald Kuspit, David Frankel, Martha Schwendener, Jeffrey Kastner, Jenifer P. Borum, Larissa Harris, Nord Wennerstrom, James Yood, Melissa Merli, Glen Helfand, Bruce Hainley, Michael Ned Holte, Amra Brooks, Christopher Miles, Ida Panicelli, Marco Meneguzzo, Cathryn Drake, Jeff Rian, Miriam Rosen, Marek Bartelik, Paul Chan

Issue edited by Tim Griffin. Essays "Books: Terry Eagleton on Slavoj Žižek," by Terry Eagleton; "Film: Gary Indiana on Richard Linklater," by Gary Indiana; "Film: David Rimanelli and Hanna Liden on 'Hostel,'" by David Rimanelli; "Archictecture: Aaron Betsky on Atelier Bow-Wow," by Aaron Betsky; "On Site: Julia Bryan-Wilson on LTTR," by Julia Bryan-Wilson; "On Site: Jonathan Gilmore on Art and the New Biology of Mind," by Jonathan Gilmore; "Slant: Carol Armstrong on Catherine de Zegher," by Carol Armstrong; "Media: Bruce Sterling on Green Fashion," by Bruce Sterling; "Top 10," Monsieur Chat; "Embedded in the Culture: The Art of Paul Chan," by Scott Rothkopf; "Chris Marker: The Revenge of the Eye," by Bill Horrigan; "Allan Kaprow: Life Like Art," by Judith Rodenbeck, Lucas Samaras, Suzanne Lacy, Jeff Kelley, and Paul McCarthy; "Pattern Recognition: The Art of Sergej Jensen," by Lisa Pasquariello; "1000 Words: David Salle," by Jordan Kantor; "Desert of the Real: The Art of Mai-Thu Perret," by Hannah Feldman; "Openings: Josh Smith," by Domenick Ammirati; "Ulla Von Brandenburg," by Jessica Morgan. ... [details]

New York, NY : Artforum, 2006
Permalink
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 318 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered
Artforum
  • periodical
  • pictorial wrappers
  • offset-printed
  • glue bound
  • black-and-white & color
  • 26.5 x 26.5 cm.
  • 274 pp.
  • edition size unknown
  • unsigned and unnumbered
objects: 18